and despair will arise. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering.
Through the total fading away and extinction of ignorance, Kamma-Formations
The component parts of Dependent Origination are those from Avijja to
Marana (Avijja > Sankhara> Vinnana > Nama-Rupa > Salayatana >
Phassa > Vedana > Tanha > Upadana > Bhava > Jati > Jara
Marana). Sorrow, lamentation, pain and grief are only by-products. They appear
within the person who, having defilement, has to go through Jara and Marana.
They are latent dispositions which cause ignorance and the origin of the
In his teachings, the Buddha did not always apply Dependent Origination in
a forward sequence : this full and correct order was for showing the
principles. When it came to practice, which started from questions, he taught
in reverse order: Jara Marana < Jati < Bhava < Upadana < Tanha
< Vedana < Phassa < Salayatana < Nama - Rupa < Vinnana <
Sankhara < Avijja.
Through the extinction of Kamma-Formations, Consciousness
Through the extinction of Consciousness, Mind and Matter
Through the extinction of Mind and Matter, the Six
Sense-Bases are extinguished.
Through the extinction of the Six
Sense-Bases, Contact is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Contact,
Feeling is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Feeling, Craving is
Through the extinction of Craving, Clinging is
Through the extinction of Clinging, Becoming is
Through the extinction of Becoming, Birth is
Through the extinction of Birth, Decay, Death, sorrow,
lamentation, pain, grief and despair are extinguished. Thus the whole mass of
suffering is extinguished.
COMPOSITIONS OF A PERSON'S CRAVING
From dependence on Impulses arises Craving.
From dependence on Craving arises Searching (or Pursuit).
From dependence on Searching arises Fortune.
From dependence on Fortune arises Decision (or Resolve).
From dependence on Resolve arises Love.
From dependence on Love arises Preoccupation.
From dependence on Preoccupation arises Attachment.
From dependence on Attachment arise Miserliness.
From dependence on Miserliness arises Protection.
From dependence on Protection arises Unwholesome Dhamma (or demerit).
WHOLESOME DHAMMA - UNWHOLESOME
( The mind which is full of intelligence, reasonable
wisdom and peace.
- The mind which is not intellegent, but stupid,
depressed, cloudy or restless.)
Unwholesome Dhamma is an unskilful action such as killing, quarrelling,
squabbling, slandering and lying. The mind is overcome by Ignorance, bound up
by the chain of craving which is never fulfilled.
If human beings in this world want to find the way to overcome impulses
and craving which are the latent qualities of their mind, they should study
Dependent Origination. This Dhamma, which is the Buddha's Transcendental
wisdom, is the key to dispel all the Unwholesome Dhamma which makes people
plunge into the heap of Suffering, so full of anxiety. Peace and contentment
will thereby appear in every human being's mind.
Dependent Origination is the Truth which is necessary for all Buddhists to
study because it is the way to understand the states of human mind by the
practice of the Four Foundations of mindfulness, applying mindfulness (Sati)
and wisdom (Panna) to contemplate the body, feelings, the mind and reality.
This practice is undertaken in order to understand Suffering, the Cause of
Suffering and to know the way to Cessation of Suffering. This is called
practising the Dhamma until wisdom arises. When wisdom appears, Ignorance is
Dependent Origination can be broken up into different forms and
subsequently analysed for meditators to understand and gain wisdom. They have
to contemplate each step in turn in the Cycle. Extinction takes place
consecutively. Wisdom arises followed by a clear comprehension in the Cycle of
Existence. There is no doubt left concerning birth, old age, disease and
death. This realization will free one from the Cycle. The defilements, craving
and attachment will be eliminated. One will gain the Four Noble Paths and
their Fruition and will finally realize Nibbana. This can be called Extinction
and is the Noble Path and Fruition of the Perfect One (Arahat) and Nibbana. It
is the highest virtue of celestial and human beings.
When the Buddha discovered that Ignorance was the root cause of Suffering,
he used the Path of Truth, which is transcendental wisdom, to destroy latent
dispositions which are buried deep in the flowing panorama of successive
mental states. Consequently he became enlightened about the three worlds (the
sensuous planes, the form planes and formless plane), the impermanence of Self
and Egolessness. What we call Ego consists of four elements, earth, water,
fire and wind. It is no more than the combination of the element corporeality
Therefore Ignorance is dispelled by his wisdom; the Buddha achieved the
real Extinction of Kamma Formations through the Noble Path of Truth and freed
himself from the snare of the origin of Suffering. The Transcendental wisdom
which appears is compared with the light of virtue that shines in the heart of
the one who practises. Right up to the present day, worlds of the followers
have always been happy and peaceful.
The Buddha's transcendental knowledge is the Dhamma for Cessation of
suffering, curing one from the disease of craving which is the science of
delusion in the Cycle of Existence.
THE ORIGIN OF DEPENDENT
The causes of Dependent Origination are as follows.
- From Dependence on Ignorance arise Karma Formations.
- From Dependence on Karma formations arises Consciousness.
- From Dependence on Consciousness arises Mind and Matter.
- From Dependence on Mind and Matter arise the Six Sense-Bases.
- From Dependence on the Six Sense - Bases arise Contact.
- From Dependence on Contact arises Feeling.
- From Dependence on Feeling arises Craving.
- From Dependence on Craving arises Clinging.
- From Dependence on Clinging arises Becoming.
- From Dependence on Becoming arises Birth.
- From Dependence on Birth arises Decay and death, sorrow,
pain, grief and despair will arise.
The arising of this whole mass of suffering is
called "Dependent Origination."
Dependent Extinction is as follows:
Through the total fading away and extinction of ignorance,
Through the extinction of Kamma-Formation, Consciousness is
Through the extinction of Consciousness, Mind and Matter are
Through the extinction of Mind and Matter, the Six Sense-Bases are
Through the extinction of the Six Senses-Bases, Contact is
Through the extinction of Contact, Feeling is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Feeling, Craving is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Craving, Clinging is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Clinging, Becoming is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Becoming, Birth is extinguished.
Through the extinction of Birth, Decay, Death, sorrow, lamentation,
grief and despair are extinguished.
The extinction of this whole mass of suffering means freeing oneself from
the snare or loop of Dependent Origination.
COMPONENT PARTS OF DEPENDENT
The Cycle of life is consisted of past, present and future and the
components of birth. There is no end and no first cause can be found. What is
the cause of birth and death? It starts from the past, moves from the past to
the present, from present to future, future to past and past to present again,
like an endless chain. This is called the Cycle of Dependent Origination or
the base of the Birth of suffering.
1. Ignorance (Avijja) is ignorance of the real nature of Suffering in the
mind, its cause, Cessation of Suffering (in the mind), and the Path leading to
Cessation of Suffering.
From Dependence on Ignorance (Avijja), Karma
2. Karma Formations (Sankhara) are Volitional activities. - Bodily
Formations - Verbal Formations - Mental Formations
From Dependence on Karma
Formations, Consciousness arises.
3. Consciousness (Vinnana) is the rising of Consciousness of the sense
object through the 6 sense organs.
Eyes - Eye Consciousness Ears - Ear
Consciousness Nose - Nose Consciousness Tongue - Tongue Consciousness Body -
From Dependence on Consciousness, Mind and Matter arise.
4. Mind and Matter (Nama-Rupa):
- Nama is Mind within the physical
body. It is subtle and delicate in nature and branches out into : - Feeling or
Sensation (Vedana) - Perception, Memory (Sanna) - Volition (Cetana) - Contact
(Phassa), Mental Impression - Mental Application, Pondering (Manasikara)- Rupa
is the physical body which can be contacted by eyes. Its nature is gross and
combined with the 4 Primary Elements of Earth, Water, Fire and Wind. From
Dependence on Mind and Matter , Six Sense Organs arise.
5. Six Sense Organs (Salayatana): The Six Sense Objects, forms, sounds,
odours, tastes, tangible and mental objects, collide with their respective
sense organs giving rise to six types of Consciousness.
Eyes - Eye Contact
Ears - Ear Contact Nose - Nose Contact Tongue - Tongue Contact Body - Body
Contact Mind - Mind Contact
From Dependence on the Six Sense Organs,
6. Contact, Mental Impression ( Phassa) is the conjunction of the sense
bases, sense object and the resultant Consciousness.
Visual consciousness -
eye (and forms) Auditory consciousness - ear (and sounds) Olfactory
consciousness - nose (and odours) Gustatory consciousness - tongue (and
tastes) Tactile consciousness - body (and tangible objects) Mind consciousness
- Mind (and mental objects)
From Dependence on Contact, Sensation
7. Sensation, Feeling (Vedana) is the feeling that experiences an object
when it comes in contact with the senses, wether it is pleasant, unpleasant or
- Feeling arisen from visual contact - eyes
- Feeling arisen from auditory contact - ears
- Feeling arisen from olfactory contact - nose
- Feeling arisen from gustatory contact - tongue
- Feeling arisen from physical contact - body
- Feeling arisen from mental contact - mind.
From Dependence on
Sensation, Craving arises.
8. Craving (Tanha) There are 6 kinds of craving corresponding to the 6
sense objects.- Craving for forms
- Craving for sounds
Craving for odours
- Craving for tastes
- Craving for tangible
objects - Craving for
From Dependence on Craving, Grasping arises.
9. Grasping (Upadana)Grasping is clinging to sense-objects and the 5
- Clinging to sensuality
- Clinging to views
- Clinging to mere rules and rites
- Clinging to ego-belief ( belief that 5 aggregates are Ego)
From Dependence on Grasping, Becoming arises.
10. Becoming (Bhava) is the mind which searches, full of impulses and
emotions. It is the mind of an ordinary man who is dominated by craving, of
one who intends to take a rebirththrough craving for existence as the result
of attachment in the previous physical forms and lives. There are 3 planes of
The Sensuous planes - the worlds of humans, animals and celestial
The Form planes - of divine beings.
The Formless planes - of divine beings.
From Dependence on Becoming,
11. Birth (Jati) is Rebirth which is the arising of psycho-physical
phenomena. Men and women form attachment to one another leading to sexual
intercourse. Consequently, beings with aggregates and senses are born.
Dependence on Birth, Old age, Death, Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and
12. Old Age and Death (Jara, Marana)
Jara means decay such as the hair turning grey, teeth dropping out,
wrinkled skin, getting older, and the decline of sense faculties. These are
impermanent conditions and are full of suffering. Marana means movement,
destruction, death, the breaking up of the aggregates, the elimination of the
The source of all this Suffering is Ignorance which can be compared with a
plant. The plant grows into a tree, complete with roots, trunk, leaves,
flowers and fruits. However, its origin cannot be found. In the same way a
sentient being's physical and mental factors arise dependent on Ignorance, of
which no one can trace its origin. It has already appeared as a chain of
An ordinary man can only stop the Cycle of Dependent Origination
temporarily because he has no transcendental wisdom about the 5 aggregates.
On the other hand a Noble One can stop the Cycle permanently by
transcendental wisdom. He will never take a Rebirth again. It is the real
Extinguishing and is like a fire which has completely gone out once its fuel
has been consumed. The 5 aggregates are really understood by the appearance of